In the homoeopathic literature, and homoeopathic pharmacopoeias we find
8 different types of turpentine.
In 1795, Hahnemann, in his pharmacists dictionary (Apotekerlexikon),
says that the common turpentine (Terebinthina communis) is a viscous
resin, from which, by distillation with water we obtain a strong
smelling light oil (called pine essence, or turpentine oil, Oleo
pino. turpentine), after a second distillation is called ethereal
turpentine oil or Oleum terebinthinae aetheroleum and
(incorrectly) turpentine spirit (Spir. terebinthinae).
Also, in 1798 he describes the Larch turpentine, which he uses
distilled (and not crude as described in later pharmacopoeias),
as a soft resin which flows through the bark of the drilled or
chopped trunks (Terebinthina laringa). It reaches the markets not
only by the Venicians, and therefore is wrongfully called Venice
turpentine (Terebinthine venata).
By distillation with water-vapor we obtain a fine , light volatile
oil (Oleum Terebinthinae), which after a second distillation
is called Oleum terebenthinae aetheroleum.
In 1852 Hartmann, who was a disciple of Hahnemann, in his
Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia for Doctors and Pharmacists makes the
differentiation between Common turpentine (P. silvestris L.,
P. nigra Link, P. cembra L., P. pinaster Acton) and Strasbourg T,
Venice T., Canadian T., Carpathian T., Hungarian T. and Cypric
turpentine. He says that the Venice turpentine, obtained from the
Pinus Larix L. (larch) is the best. It is purified and rectified
with 8 parts of water in a glass-retort until one third of the
oil remains. He calls it (Oleum Terebinthinae aetheroleum).
In his Homoeopathic Manual (also in 1852), J. Buchner mentiones the
chemical analysis data of the Strasbourg turpentine, without stating
which turpentine oil should be used in Homeopathy
Gruner, in 1878 in the Homoeopahtic Pharmacopeoia states: all
species of Pinus produce turpentine of different purity and quality,
from which the volatile oil is obtained by distillation with
For the medical use the best french oil again is slowly distilled
over water in a glass-retort (Oleum terebinthina aetheroleum)